Sally Haslanger has recently argued that philosophical focus on implicit bias is overly individualist, since social inequalities are best explained in terms of social structures rather than the actions and attitudes of individuals. I argue that questions of individual responsibility and implicit bias, properly understood, do constitute an important part of addressing structural injustice, and I propose an alternative conception of social structure according to which implicit biases are themselves best understood as a special type of structure.
Zheng, Robin. 2018. "Bias, Structure, and Injustice: A Reply to Haslanger." Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 4, (1). Article 4. doi:10.5206/fpq/2018.1.4.