Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository


Master of Arts




Dr. Chris Ellis


Well-made gravers or spurred tools are one stone tool characteristic of the Paleo-Indian time period, but although many explanations have been posited as to their purpose (tattooing, hide piercing, engraving, etc), to date few typological or use-wear analyses have been conducted. This thesis analyzes a sample of gravers recovered from Early Paleo-Indian (11,000-10,400 B.P.) sites in southern Ontario. Using graver morphology and low-power microscopic examination of traces of use-wear, and guided by experiments using modern replicas, a typology of EPI gravers is evaluated, and a better understanding of their functions and roles in Paleo-Indian technology obtained. This study provides insights into these poorly understood tools and everyday Paleo-Indian actions, looking beyond the traditional focus on the age of sites and manufacturing procedures used to produce Paleo-Indian technologies.

Appendix A-D.pdf (3444 kB)
Appendices A-D