#### Title

A Study of Pseudo-Periodic and Pseudo-Bordered Words for Functions Beyond Identity and Involution

#### Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

#### Program

Computer Science

#### Supervisor

Dr. Lila Kari

#### Abstract

Periodicity, primitivity and borderedness are some of the fundamental notions in combinatorics on words. Motivated by the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA strands wherein a word (strand) over the DNA alphabet \{A, G, C, T\} and its Watson-Crick complement are informationally ``identical", these notions have been extended to consider pseudo-periodicity and pseudo-borderedness obtained by replacing the ``identity" function with ``pseudo-identity" functions (antimorphic involution in case of Watson-Crick complementarity). For a given alphabet $\Sigma$, an antimorphic involution $\theta$ is an antimorphism, i.e., $\theta(uv)=\theta(v) \theta(u)$ for all $u,v \in \Sigma^{*}$ and an involution, i.e., $\theta(\theta(u))=u$ for all $u \in \Sigma^{*}$. In this thesis, we continue the study of pseudo-periodic and pseudo-bordered words for pseudo-identity functions including involutions.

To start with, we propose a binary word operation, $\theta$-catenation, that generates $\theta$-powers (pseudo-powers) of a word for any morphic or antimorphic involution $\theta$. We investigate various properties of this operation including closure properties of various classes of languages under it, and its connection with the previously defined notion of $\theta$-primitive words.

A non-empty word $u$ is said to be $\theta$-bordered if there exists a non-empty word $v$ which is a prefix of $u$ while $\theta(v)$ is a suffix of $u$. We investigate the properties of $\theta$-bordered (pseudo-bordered) and $\theta$-unbordered (pseudo-unbordered) words for pseudo-identity functions $\theta$ with the property that $\theta$ is either a morphism or an antimorphism with $\theta^{n}=I$, for a given $n \geq 2$, or $\theta$ is a literal morphism or an antimorphism.

Lastly, we initiate a new line of study by exploring the disjunctivity properties of sets of pseudo-bordered and pseudo-unbordered words and some other related languages for various pseudo-identity functions. In particular, we consider such properties for morphic involutions $\theta$ and prove that, for any $i \geq 2$, the set of all words with exactly $i$ $\theta$-borders is disjunctive (under certain conditions).

#### Recommended Citation

Kulkarni, Manasi, "A Study of Pseudo-Periodic and Pseudo-Bordered Words for Functions Beyond Identity and Involution" (2015). *Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*. 3221.

https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/etd/3221