Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository


Master of Arts




Dr. Andrew Nelson


This study examines evidence of limb manipulation and positioning in a sample of eighty one (n=81) Egyptian human mummies archived in the IMPACT radiological database housed at The University of Western Ontario. The purpose of this research is to expand upon the existing research on the positioning of the arms and hands in Egyptian mummies (cf. Gray, 1972) to include the lower body in order to shed light on how the embalming process altered the legs and feet. The results of this study demonstrate that some aspects of lower body positioning vary across time periods in conjunction with other stylistic elements of mummification (e.g. upper body position), while others were more closely related to age and sex. These results support the hypothesis that the positioning of the lower body was a dynamic, varied process deliberately enacted to afford the deceased an appropriately reconstructed body suitable for use in the afterlife.