Article Title

The Relationship Between Teachers’ Inclusion-Related Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes and Student Outcomes: A Review of Recent Literature

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



In this article, we report on a scoping review of empirical literature addressing the relationship between teachers’ inclusion-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes and student outcomes. Using six common electronic databases for education (ProQuest, JSTOR, SAGE Journals Online, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES), we searched for peer-reviewed, English-language publications between 1 January 2008 and 1 January 2018 (a 10-year period). A total of 25 articles met the search criteria for this scoping review and were consequently subject to a more detailed examination. This more detailed examination focused upon five student variables (intellectual disabilities [IDs], learning disabilities [LDs], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], other mental health disorders, and giftedness) and five possible student outcomes (social well-being, functional or life skills, academic achievement, post-secondary transitions, and exceptionality-related outcomes). These 25 articles include eight systematic or scoping reviews, two that report on experimental studies, nine that report on quasi-experimental studies, and six that report on correlational-descriptive research studies. A summary account of these 25 articles is offered, as is a list of related implications, for both practice and inquiry. Some of the most significant implications are related to the limited body of evidence related to a number of variables; these include teachers’ attitudes and resultant student outcomes, giftedness, and post-secondary transitions. Additionally, these implications also offer cautionary considerations related to teachers delivering mental health-related programs and utilizing technology-related interventions for students with ASD.

This document is now available on OJS