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Students with learning disabilities and other high-incidence hidden exceptionalities (HIHE) can struggle with secondary difficulties including low confidence in their abilities (e.g., Klassen, 2010) along with primary difficulties related to their exceptionality. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of the perspective of individuals with hidden exceptionalities with regard to maladaptive beliefs they can form. Using learning disabilities as a platform for discussing HIHE, we unpack two types of maladaptive beliefs—related to generalizations and mindset—and suggest adaptive alternative beliefs that can promote adaptive behaviour. The focus on maladaptive beliefs draws attention to the identification process, and specifically the types of variables that can influence how well aligned parts of the process are for particular students. We present a framework that contextualizes individual beliefs within the identification process, and what other variables determine alignment of parts within the process. The framework can be used to support educators through the identification process, as well as researchers in providing direction for future research.