Earth Sciences Publications

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2018

Journal

Tectonophysics

Volume

737

First Page

1

URL with Digital Object Identifier

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2018.04.014

Last Page

26

Abstract

Mantle xenoliths hosted by the Quaternary Tasse alkaline basalts in the Canadian Cordillera, southeastern British Columbia, are mostly spinel lherzolite originating from subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The xenoliths contain abundant feldspar veins, melt pockets and spongy clinopyroxene, recording extensive alkaline metasomatism and partial melting. Feldspar occurs as veins and interstitial crystal in melt pockets. Melt pockets occur mainly at triple junctions, along grain boundaries, and consist mainly of olivine, cpx, opx and spinel surrounded by interstitial feldspar. The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of the xenoliths indicate that their sources are characterized by variable mixtures of depleted MORB mantle and EM1 and EM2 mantle components. Large variations in εNd values (−8.2 to +9.6) and Nd depleted mantle model ages (TDM=66 to 3380 Ma) are consistent with multiple sources and melt extraction events, and long-term (> 3300 Ma) isolation of some source regions from the convecting mantle. Samples with Archean and Paleoproterozoic Nd model ages are interpreted as either have been derived from relict Laurentian mantle pieces beneath the Cordillera or have been eroded from the root of the Laurentian craton to the east and transported to the base of the Cordilleran lithosphere by edge-driven convection currents. The oxygen isotope compositions of the xenoliths (average δ18O=+5.1 ± 0.5‰) are similar to those of depleted mantle. The average δ18O values of olivine (+5.0 ± 0.2‰), opx (+5.9 ± 0.6‰), cpx (+6.0 ± 0.6‰) and spinel (+4.5 ± 0.2‰) are similar to mantle values. Large fractionations for olivine-opx, olivine-cpx and opx-cpx pairs, however, reflect disequilibrium stemming from metasomatism and partial melting. Whole-rock trace element, Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope compositions of the xenoliths and host alkaline basalts indicate different mantle sources for these two suites of rocks. The xenoliths were derived from shallow lithospheric sources, whereas the alkaline basalts originated from a deeper asthenospheric mantle source.

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