Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Development is a process of transformation within and among decision-making institutions. The oceans are a commons; the necessary institutions for resource management are organized within nation-state regimes and community-based regimes.;A morality is a framework of ethics governing participation in institutions and associated regimes. As social institutions, technology and property are moralities. Aquaculture, as new technology requiring the establishment of private property rights in a commons, is a development especially sensitive to the moral dimension.;Salmon aquaculturists in Shetland and New Brunswick use the same technology and exhibit very similar production profiles. Salmon farmers in Shetland have established themselves within a property regime that is completely community-based, characterized by a consistent morality known as "the Shetland way". However, New Brunswick growers are caught within a clash between the moralities of a nation-state regime versus a community regime.;All regimes require trust; where there is not a shared morality, trust is problematic if not impossible. The "Shetland way" has facilitated trust of salmon farming among other users of Shetland's marine resources. In New Brunswick a lack of trust has required development to be accomplished at the cost of a high degree of user conflict.



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