Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid disrupts mature Enterococcus faecalis biofilm
Journal of Microbiology
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Apical periodontitis is caused by biofilm-mediated root canal infection. Early phase oral bacterial biofilms are inhibited by Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA). However, mature biofilms that develop over 3 weeks are more resistant to traditional endodontic medicaments. Therefore, this study examined the effectiveness of Lp.LTA on disrupting mature Enterococcus faecalis biofilms, and on enhancing the effects of endodontic medicaments. LTA was purified from L. plantarum through butanol extraction followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange chromatography. E. faecalis biofilms were formed over 3 weeks on glass bottom dishes and in dentin blocks obtained from human single-rooted premolars. These mature biofilms were treated with or without Lp.LTA for 1 h, followed by additional treatment with either chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), calcium hydroxide (CH), or triple antibiotics for 24 h. Biofilms on glass were live/dead stained and quantified by ZEN through confocal laser microscopy. Bio-films in dentin were fixed, sputter coated and analyzed by ImageJ with scanning electron microscopy. Preformed E. faecalis mature biofilms on the culture dishes were dose-dependently disrupted by Lp.LTA. Lp.LTA potentiated the effects of CHX or CH on the disruption of mature biofilm. Interestingly, CHX-induced disruption of preformed E. faecalis mature biofilms was synergistically enhanced only when pre-treated with Lp.LTA. Furthermore, in the dentin block model, Lp.LTA alone reduced E. faecalis mature biofilm and pre-treatment with Lp.LTA promoted the anti-biofilm activity of CHX. Lp.LTA could be an anti-biofilm or supplementary agent that can be effective for E. faecalis-biofilm-induced diseases.