This paper contributes to the limited literature on the educational outcomes of children in rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. It explores the impact of school-level factors such as physical resources, teachers and school characteristics on retention to the last grade of primary in the KP province for the time period 2007-12. Two sources of data were used to measure the retention rates. One of which is an official compilation of institutional data on education known as Education Management Information System (EMIS). The second data source, Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER), is a household data set with a rich set of household covariates, teachers’ characteristics and student performance data on reading and mathematics. The results from regression analyses indicate that children are more likely to complete primary education cycle when they receive instructions in local language and when the pupil-teacher ratio is below a certain threshold. Results also reveal that a continuous increase in school size beyond a certain threshold (> 400 enrollment) is related to a decrease in retention rate. Further, mixed schools (all-boys’ schools having girls enrolled in them) were found to have better retention rates than boys’ schools.
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"Looking Beyond the Household: The Importance of School Factors in Understanding Elementary Grade Retention in Rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan,"
Comparative and International Education / Éducation Comparée et Internationale: Vol. 46
, Article 6.
Available at: https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cie-eci/vol46/iss1/6