ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
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In this proof-of-concept study, the fabrication of novel Au nanostructured indium tin oxide (Au-ITO) surfaces is described for the development of a dual-detection platform with electrochemical and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based biosensing capabilities. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) was applied to fabricate Au-ITO surfaces. Oligomers of α-synuclein (αS) were covalently immobilized to determine the electrochemical and LSPR characteristics of the protein. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were performed using the redox probe [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) to detect the binding of Cu(II) ions and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to αS on the Au-ITO surface. Electrochemical and LSPR data were complemented by Thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. EGCG was shown to induce the formation of amorphous aggregates that decreased the electrochemical signals. However, the binding of EGCG with αS increased the LSPR absorption band with a bathochromic shift of 10-15 nm. The binding of Cu(II) to αS enhanced the DPV peak current intensity. NSL fabricated Au-ITO surfaces provide a promising dual-detection platform to monitor the interaction of small molecules with proteins using electrochemistry and LSPR.