Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity between Awake and Isoflurane Anesthetized Marmosets
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© 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular as a preclinical model. To assess functional connectivity (FC) across the marmoset brain, resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) is often performed under isoflurane anesthesia to avoid the effects of motion, physiological stress, and training requirements. In marmosets, however, it remains unclear how isoflurane anesthesia affects patterns of FC. Here, we investigated the effects of isoflurane on FC when delivered with either medical air or 100% pure oxygen, two canonical methods of inhalant isoflurane anesthesia delivery. The results demonstrated that when delivered with either medical air or 100% oxygen, isoflurane globally decreased FC across resting-state networks that were identified in awake marmosets. Generally, although isoflurane globally decreased FC in resting-state networks, the spatial structure of the networks was preserved. Outside of the context of RS networks, we indexed pair-wise functional connectivity between regions across the brain and found that isoflurane substantially altered interhemispheric and thalamic FC. Taken together, these findings indicate that RS-fMRI under isoflurane anesthesia is useful to evaluate the global structure of functional networks, but may obfuscate important nodes of some network components when compared to data acquired in fully awake marmosets.