Density distribution of the type E2 glenoid in cuff tear arthropathy
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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© 2019 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees Background: Little is known about the cortical-like and cancellous bone density variations in superiorly eroded glenoids due to cuff tear arthropathy. The purpose of this study was to analyze regional bone density in type E2 glenoids. Methods: Clinical shoulder computed tomography scans were obtained from 32 patients with a type E2 superior erosion (10 men and 22 women; mean age, 73 years). Measurement regions were organized into quadrants (superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior) and depth regions. The depth regions were incremented by 2 mm from 0 to 10 mm. A repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance was performed to assess differences and interactions between mean densities (cortical-like and cancellous bone) in each depth, in each quadrant, and between sexes. Results: The lowest cancellous bone density was found in the inferior glenoid quadrant compared with all other quadrants (307 ± 50 Hounsfield units [HU], P < .001). At the glenoid surface, the superior quadrant contained the highest mean density for cortical-like bone (895 ± 97 HU); this differed significantly from the posterior, anterior, and inferior quadrants (P ≤ .033). As for depth of measurement, cortical-like bone was most dense at the glenoid surface (0-2 mm, 892 ± 91 HU), and density decreased significantly at depths greater than 2 mm (P ≤ .019). Conclusion: In patients with type E2 glenoids due to cuff tear arthropathy, the densest bone was found in the superior quadrant in the area of erosion. The inferior quadrant, which tends to be unloaded as the humeral head migrates superiorly, had the lowest density bone. In addition, the best-quality bone was located at the glenoid surface as compared with deeper in the vault.