Association of modifiable risk factors with bone mineral density among people with distal radius fracture: A cross-sectional study
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© 2019, University of Toronto Press Inc.. All rights reserved. Purpose: This study determined the extent to which modifiable risk factors (balance, muscle strength, and physical activity [PA]) explained variability in bone mineral density (BMD) among people with a recent distal radius fracture (DRF). Method: This cross-sectional study included 190 patients, aged 50–80 years, with a DRF. Participants were assessed for balance, muscle strength, PA, fracture-specific pain, and disability. Areal BMD at the femoral neck (BMD-FN) and total hip (BMD-TH) was assessed. Correlation and multiple linear regression was used to determine the contribution of modifiable risk factors to BMD. Results: Balance, handgrip strength, knee extension strength, and plantar-flexion strength had significant bivariate associations with BMD-FN. There was a weak to moderate correlation (r = 0.25–0.40; p < 0.05) of balance and grip strength with BMD. Grip strength independently (p < 0.05) explained 17% and 12% of the variability in BMD-FN (n = 81) and BMD-TH (n = 82), respectively. Stratified by age, balance (R2 = 0.10; p = 0.04) and grip strength (R2 = 0.32; p = 0.003) were independent significant predictors of BMD-FN among women aged 50–64 years and 65–80 years, respectively. Conclusions: Grip strength of the unaffected hand is independently associated with BMD-FN and BMD-TH in people with recent DRF. It may act as a surrogate for general bone health, frailty, or overall muscle strength rather than as a direct target for intervention.