Combined osteochondral allograft and meniscal allograft transplantation: a survivorship analysis
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
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© 2015, European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA). Introduction: The efficacy of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) and osteochondral allografting (OCA) as individual treatment modalities for select applications is well established. MAT and OCA are considered symbiotic procedures due to a complementary spectrum of indications and reciprocal contraindications. However, few outcomes of concomitant MAT and OCA have been reported. This study is a retrospective review of patients who received simultaneous MAT and OCA between 1983 and 2011. Methods: Forty-eight (twenty-nine male: nineteen female) patients with a median age of 35.8 years (15–66) received combined MAT and OCA procedures between 1983 and 2011. Forty-three patients had received previous surgery with a median of 3 procedures (1–11 procedures). The underlying diagnosis was trauma (tibial plateau fracture) in 33 % with osteoarthritis predominating in 54.2 % of cases. Thirty-one patients received a lateral meniscus, 16 received a medial meniscus and one patient received bilateral MAT. The median number of OCAs was two per patient (1–5 grafts), with a median graft area of 15 cm2 (0.7–41 cm2). There were 21 unipolar, 24 bipolar (tibiofemoral) and three multifocal lesions. Thirty-six MATs constituted a compound tibial plateau OCA with native meniscus attached. At follow-up, failure was defined as any procedure resulting in removal or revision of one or more of the grafts. Patients completed the modified Merle d’Aubigné and Postel (18-point) scale, Knee Society Function (KS-F) score, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Patient satisfaction was also captured. Results: Twenty-six of 48 patients (54.2 %) required reoperation, but only 11 patients (22.9 %) were noted to have failed (10 MAT and 11 OCA). The mean time to failure was 3.2 years (95 % CI 1.5–4.9 years) and 2.7 years (95 % CI 1.3–4.2 years) for MAT and OCA, respectively. The 5-year survivorship was 78 and 73 % for MAT and OCA respectively, and 69 and 68 % at 10 years. Six of the failures were in the OA cases and one was an OCD lesion where bipolar grafts were utilized. The OCD case underwent a revision OCA and remains intact. The others were converted to knee arthroplasty. One case failed due to early deep infection, ultimately requiring arthrodesis. Of those with grafts still intact, the mean clinical follow-up was 6.8 years (1.7–17.1 years). Statistically significant improvements in all outcome scores were noted between baseline and the latest follow-up. In total, 90 % of those responding would have the surgery again and 78 % were either extremely satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Conclusion: The overall success rate of concomitant MAT and OCA was comparable with reported results for either procedure in isolation. A trend towards a worse outcome was observed with bipolar tibiofemoral grafts in the setting of OA. Comparatively better results in less advanced, unipolar disease could suggest a benefit to early intervention that might merit a lower treatment threshold for combined MAT and OCA. Level of evidence: IV.