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BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma is not well understood, and there needs to be an effective biomarker to identify patients who might benefit from this treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging as an early imaging biomarker of response to stereotactic radiosurgery in a malignant rat glioma model.
METHODS: Rats with orthotopic C6 glioma tumors received either mock irradiation (controls, N = 8) or stereotactic radiosurgery (N = 25, 12 Gy in one fraction) delivered by Helical Tomotherapy. Twelve irradiated animals were sacrificed four days after stereotactic radiosurgery to assess acute CT perfusion and histological changes, and 13 irradiated animals were used to study survival. Irradiated animals with survival >15 days were designated as responders while those with survival ≤15 days were non-responders. Longitudinal CT perfusion imaging was performed at baseline and regularly for eight weeks post-baseline.
RESULTS: Early signs of radiation-induced injury were observed on histology. There was an overall survival benefit following stereotactic radiosurgery when compared to the controls (log-rank P
CONCLUSIONS: Response to stereotactic radiosurgery was heterogeneous, and early selection of responders and non-responders was possible using CT perfusion imaging. Validation of CT perfusion indices for response assessment is necessary before clinical implementation.