In vivo detection of acute intracellular acidification in glioblastoma multiforme following a single dose of cariporide
International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer that is very difficult to treat. Clinically, it is important to be able to distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive brain tumors. Previous studies have shown that some drugs can induce a rapid change in intracellular pH that could help to identify aggressive cancer. The sodium proton exchanger (NHE1) plays a significant role in maintaining pH balance in the tumor microenvironment. Cariporide is a sodium proton exchange inhibitor that is well tolerated by humans in cardiac applications. We hypothesized that cariporide could selectively acidify brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether amine/amide concentration-independent detection (AACID) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI measurement of tumor pHi could detect acidification after cariporide injection. Using a 9.4T MRI scanner, CEST spectra were acquired in six mice approximately 14 days after implanting 105 U87 human glioblastoma multiforme cells in the brain, before and after administration of cariporide (dose: 6 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Three additional mice were studied as controls and received only vehicle injection (DMSO + PBS). Repeated measures t test was used to examine changes in tumor and contralateral tissue regions of interest. Two hours after cariporide injection, there was a significant 0.12 ± 0.03 increase in tumor AACID value corresponding to a 0.48 decrease in pHi and no change in AACID value in contralateral tissue. A small but significant increase of 0.04 ± 0.017 in tumor AACID value was also observed following vehicle injection. This study demonstrates that acute CEST MRI contrast changes, indicative of intracellular acidification, after administration of cariporide could help localize glioblastoma.