A Prospective Study of 18F-DCFPyL PSMA PET/CT Restaging in Recurrent Prostate Cancer following Primary External Beam Radiotherapy or Brachytherapy
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
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Purpose: Radio-recurrent prostate cancer is typically detected by a rising prostate-specific antigen and may reflect local or distant disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen, such as 18F-DCFPyL have shown promise in restaging men with recurrent disease postprostatectomy but are less well characterized in the setting of radio-recurrent disease. Methods and Materials: A prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 18F-DCFPyL PET/computed tomography (CT) when added to diagnostic imaging (DI; CT abdomen and pelvis, bone scan, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging pelvis) for men with radio-recurrent prostate cancer. All men were imaged with DI and subsequently underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT with local and central reads. Tie break reads were performed as required. Management questionnaires were completed after DI and again after 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT. Discordance in patterns of disease detected with 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT versus DI and changes in management were characterized. Results: Seventy-nine men completed the study. Most men had T1 disease (62%) and Gleason score <7 (95%). Median prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis was 7.4 ng/mL and at relapse was 4.8 ng/mL. DI detected isolated intraprostatic recurrence in 38 out of 79 men (48%), regional nodal recurrence in 9 out of 79 (11%), distant disease in 12 out of 79 (15%), and no disease in 26 out of 79 (33%). 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT detected isolated intraprostatic recurrence in 38 out of 79 men (48%), regional nodal recurrence in 21 out of 79 (27%), distant disease in 24 out of 79 (30%), and no disease in 10 out of 79 (13%). DI identified 8 out of 79 (10%) patients to have oligometastatic disease, compared with 21 out of 79 (27%) with 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT. 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT changed proposed management in 34 out of 79 (43%) patients. Conclusions: 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT identified extraprostatic disease in twice as many men with radio-recurrent prostate cancer compared with DI and detected a site of recurrence in 87% of men compared with 67% with DI. Furthermore, 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT identified potentially actionable disease (prostate only recurrence or oligometastatic disease) in 75% of men and changed proposed management in 43% of men.