Advanced Endoscopic Navigation: Surgical Big Data, Methodology, and Applications
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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© 2018 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Interventional endoscopy (e.g., bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, laparoscopy, cystoscopy) is a widely performed procedure that involves either diagnosis of suspicious lesions or guidance for minimally invasive surgery in a variety of organs within the body cavity. Endoscopy may also be used to guide the introduction of certain items (e.g., stents) into the body. Endoscopic navigation systems seek to integrate big data with multimodal information (e.g., computed tomography, magnetic resonance images, endoscopic video sequences, ultrasound images, external trackers) relative to the patient's anatomy, control the movement of medical endoscopes and surgical tools, and guide the surgeon's actions during endoscopic interventions. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to realize the next generation of context-aware navigated endoscopy. This review presents a broad survey of various aspects of endoscopic navigation, particularly with respect to the development of endoscopic navigation techniques. First, we investigate big data with multimodal information involved in endoscopic navigation. Next, we focus on numerous methodologies used for endoscopic navigation. We then review different endoscopic procedures in clinical applications. Finally, we discuss novel techniques and promising directions for the development of endoscopic navigation.