Simultaneous monitoring of cerebral perfusion and cytochrome c oxidase by combining broadband near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy

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Biomedical Optics Express

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© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement. Preterm infants born with very low birth weights are at a high risk of brain injury, in part because the premature brain is believed to be prone to periods of low cerebral blood flow (CBF). Tissue damage is likely to occur if reduction in CBF is sufficient to impair cerebral energy metabolism for extended periods. Therefore, a neuromonitoring method that can detect reductions in CBF, large enough to affect metabolism, could alert the neonatal intensive care team before injury occurs. In this report, we present the development of an optical system that combines diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for monitoring CBF and broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (B-NIRS) for monitoring the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO) – a key biomarker of oxidative metabolism. The hybrid instrument includes a multiplexing system to enable concomitant DCS and B-NIRS measurements while avoiding crosstalk between the two subsystems. The ability of the instrument to monitor dynamic changes in CBF and oxCCO was demonstrated in a piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Experiments conducted in eight animals, including two controls, showed that oxCCO exhibited a delayed response to ischemia while CBF and tissue oxygenation (StO2) responses were instantaneous. These findings suggest that simultaneous neuromonitoring of perfusion and metabolism could provide critical information regarding clinically significant hemodynamic events prior to the onset of brain injury.

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