Epigenetics & Chromatin
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Genome editing technology has evolved rather quickly and become accessible to most researchers. It has resulted in far reaching implications and a number of novel designer systems including epigenome editing. Epigenome editing utilizes a combination of nuclease-null genome editing systems and effector domains to modulate gene expression. In particular, Zinc Finger, Transcription-Activator-Like Effector, and CRISPR/Cas9 have emerged as modular systems that can be modified to allow for precision manipulation of epigenetic marks without altering underlying DNA sequence. This review contains a comprehensive catalog of effector domains that can be used with components of genome editing systems to achieve epigenome editing. Ultimately, the evidence-based design of epigenome editing offers a novel improvement to the limited attenuation strategies. There is much potential for editing and/or correcting gene expression in somatic cells toward a new era of functional genomics and personalized medicine.