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© 2017 by The American Society of Hematology. Platelets, anucleated megakaryocyte (MK)-derived cells, play a major role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Although protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is readily detected in MKs and platelets, the impact of CK2-dependent signaling on MK/platelet (patho-) physiology has remained elusive. The present study explored the impact of the CK2 regulatory b-subunit on platelet biogenesis and activation. MK/platelet-specific genetic deletion of CK2β (ck2β-/-) in mice resulted in a significant macrothrombocytopenia and an increased extramedullar megakaryopoiesis with an enhanced proportion of premature platelets. Although platelet life span was only mildly affected, ck2β-/- MK displayed an abnormal microtubule structure with a drastically increased fragmentation within bone marrow and a significantly reduced proplatelet formation in vivo. In ck2β-/- platelets, tubulin polymerization was disrupted, resulting in an impaired thrombopoiesis and an abrogated inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate receptor-dependent intracellular calcium (Ca21) release. Presumably due to a blunted increase in the concentration of cytosolic Ca21, activation-dependent increases of a and dense-granule secretion and integrin aIIbb3 activation, and aggregation were abrogated in ck2β-/- platelets. Accordingly, thrombus formation and stabilization under high arterial shear rates were significantly diminished, and thrombotic vascular occlusion in vivo wassignificantly blunted in ck2β-/- mice, accompanied by a slight prolongation of bleeding time. Following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, ck2b-/- mice displayed significantly reduced cerebral infarct volumes, developed significantly less neurological deficits, and showed significantly better outcomes after ischemic stroke than ck2βfl/fl mice. The present observations reveal CK2b as a novel powerful regulator of thrombopoiesis, Ca2+-dependent platelet activation, and arterial thrombosis in vivo.