offenders, risk assessment, Aboriginal male, criminal recidivism
No level of violent recidivism is acceptable to Correctional Service of Canada staff or the Canadian public. Among other tools, CSC staff use counselling, supervision, education, and treatment programs to ensure the safe community reintegration of eligible offenders. The core method of determining risk for recidivism is an actuarially-based risk assessment instrument. The general process of contemporary risk assessment is outlined in this paper revealing a number of efficient and effective measures suitable for all male offender populations. Theory and research are reviewed showing that established risk prediction factors such as age, criminal history, anti-social peers, anti-social attitudes, and substance abuse predict criminal recidivism for all offenders regardless of cultural, racial, or geographic heritage. The majority of these validated risk assessment instruments have moderate predictive power for all male offenders. Seven of these instruments are individually reviewed with regard to their use with Aboriginal groups. This paper concludes with recommendations for further research on risk assessment among cultural groups.