Constitutive SRC-mediated phosphorylation of pannexin 1 at tyrosine 198 occurs at the plasma membrane
Journal of Biological Chemistry
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© 2019 DeLalio et al. Pannexin 1 (PANX1)-mediated ATP release in vascular smooth muscle coordinates α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) vasoconstriction and blood pressure homeostasis. We recently identified amino acids 198-200 (YLK) on the PANX1 intracellular loop that are critical forα1-AR-mediated vasoconstriction and PANX1 channel function. We report herein that the YLK motif is contained within an SRC homology 2 domain and is directly phosphorylated by SRC proto-oncogene, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (SRC) at Tyr198. We demonstrate that PANX1- mediated ATP release occurs independently of intracellular calcium but is sensitive to SRC family kinase (SFK) inhibition, suggestive of channel regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using a PANX1 Tyr198-specific antibody, SFK inhibitors, SRC knockdown, temperature-dependent SRC cells, and kinase assays, we found that PANX1-mediated ATP release and vasoconstriction involves constitutive phosphorylation of PANX1 Tyr198 by SRC. We specifically detected SRC-mediated Tyr198 phosphorylation at the plasma membrane and observed that it is not enhanced or induced by α1-AR activation. Last, we show that PANX1 immunostaining is enriched in the smooth muscle layer of arteries from hypertensivehumansand that Tyr198 phosphorylation is detectable in these samples, indicative of a role for membrane-associated PANX1 in small arteries of hypertensive humans. Our discovery adds insight into the regulation of PANX1 by post-translational modifications and connects a significant purinergic vasoconstriction pathway with a previously identified, yet unexplored, tyrosine kinase-based α1-AR constriction mechanism. This work implicates SRC-mediated PANX1 function in normal vascular hemodynamics and suggests that Tyr198-phosphorylated PANX1 is involved in hypertensive vascular pathology.