Membrane-lipid homeostasis in a prodromal rat model of Alzheimer's disease: Characteristic profiles in ganglioside distributions during aging detected using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects
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Background: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD. Methods: Ganglioside profiles in wild-type (Wt) and transgenic APP21 Fischer rats were detected and quantified using MALDI-IMS at PO (birth), 3, 12, and 20 months of age and each species quantified to allow for individual species comparisons. Results: Tg APP21 rats were found to have a decreased level of complex gangliosides in a number of brain regions as compared to Wt rats and showed higher levels of simple gangliosides. A unique pattern of expression was observed in the white matter as compared to gray matter regions, with an age-dependent decrease in GD1 d18:1 species observed and significantly elevated levels of GM3 in Tg APP21 rats. Conclusions: These results are indicative of a pathological shift in ganglioside homeostasis during aging that is exacerbated in Tg APP21 rats. General significance: Ganglioside dysregulation may occur in the prodromal stages of neurodegenerative diseases like AD.