Decellularized Matrices As Cell-Instructive Scaffolds to Guide Tissue-Specific Regeneration
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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Decellularized scaffolds are promising clinically translational biomaterials that can be applied to direct cell responses and promote tissue regeneration. Bioscaffolds derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of decellularized tissues can naturally mimic the complex extracellular microenvironment through the retention of compositional, biomechanical, and structural properties specific to the native ECM. Increasingly, studies have investigated the use of ECM-derived scaffolds as instructive substrates to recapitulate properties of the stem cell niche and guide cell proliferation, paracrine factor production, and differentiation in a tissue specific manner. Here, we review the application of decellularized tissue scaffolds as instructive matrices for stem or progenitor cells, with a focus on the mechanisms through which ECM derived scaffolds can mediate cell behavior to promote tissue-specific regeneration. We conclude that although additional preclinical studies are required, ECM-derived scaffolds are a promising platform to guide cell behavior and may have widespread clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine.