Journal of Medical Imaging
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Dilatation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage. This posthemorrhagic ventricle dilatation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure, and without treatment can lead to death. Two-dimensional ultrasound (US) through the fontanelles of the patients is serially acquired to monitor the progression of PHVD. These images are used in conjunction with clinical experience and physical exams to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up cerebrospinal fluid (ventricle tap, VT) might be indicated for a patient; however, quantitative measurements of the ventricles size are often not performed. We describe the potential utility of the quantitative three-dimensional (3-D) US measurements of ventricle volumes (VVs) in 38 preterm neonates to monitor and manage PHVD. Specifically, we determined 3-D US VV thresholds for patients who received VT in comparison to patients with PHVD who resolve without intervention. In addition, since many patients who have an initial VT will receive subsequent interventions, we determined which PHVD patients will receive additional VT after the initial one has been performed. (c) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.