Discussion Paper no. 03-09


This paper examines the economic inclusion, political participation, and social belonging of Canadians at mid-life. These are used as indicators of dimensions of integration, an individual-level equivalent of social cohesion. Time allocations among major activities such as paid work, domestic work, and volunteering of those aged 30-54 are analyzed using data gathered through the General Social Survey on Time Use in 1986, 1992, and 1998. The influences of individual, family, and community attributes on inclusion through economic activities, participation through volunteer work with organizations, and feeling of belonging to communities are also examined using the data from the 1998 GSS on Time Use that were merged with community descriptors from the 1996 census.