Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2011

Journal

Experimental Neurology

Issue

228

First Page

259

Last Page

269

URL with Digital Object Identifier

10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.01.019

Abstract

Acetylcholine in the brain has been associated with consciousness and general anesthesia effects. We tested the hypothesis that the integrity of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) affects the response to general anesthetics. Cholinergic neurons in NBM were selectively lesioned by bilateral infusion of 192IgG-saporin in adult, male Long–Evans rats, and control rats were infused with saline. Depletion of choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive cells in the NBM and decrease in optical density of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining in the frontal and visual cortices confirmed a significant decrease in NBM cholinergic neurons in lesioned as compared to control rats. AChE staining in the hippocampus and ChAT-positive neurons in the medial septum–vertical limb of the diagonal band were not different between lesioned and control rats. When a general anesthetic was administered, lesioned compared to control rats showed significantly longer duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR) after propofol (5 or 10 mg/kg i.v.), pentobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg i.p.) but not halothane (2%). However, the behavioral excitation, as indicated by horizontal movements, induced by halothane was reduced in lesioned as compared to control rats. Reversible inactivation of NBM with GABAA receptor agonist muscimol increased slow waves in the neocortex during awake immobility, and prolonged the duration of LORR and loss of tail-pinch response after propofol, pentobarbital and halothane. In summary, lesion of NBM cholinergic neurons or inactivation of the NBM prolonged the LORR response to general anesthetic drugs.