Lung Cancer Epidemiology – A Global View
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews
Smoking, air pollution and radon exposure are causally related to lung cancer. This review analyzes trends of smoking habits by age, sex and ethnicity and their correlation with incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Unfortunately the use of tobacco by adolescents is on the rise. Most developed countries are still showing the rising trend of mortality in female smokers. In Asia, cigarette smoking has become a major health risk with one in three of all cigarettes in the world today are smoked in China. Estimated one hundred million young ( < 29 years old) Chinese smokers will eventually die from lung cancer. In Central and South America, occupational risk with exposure to respiratory carcinogens in Brazil correlated with increasing lung cancer incidence. In Chile an analysis revealed a trend in lung cancer odd ratios with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water. In Uruguay, in addition to tobacco consumption, diet with low consumption of plant foods, or high consumption of red meat, total fat and cholesterol contributed to a higher risk of lung cancer development. Although many Western governments and health authorities now try to persuade people not to smoke, and in some developed countries tobacco consumption has already begun to fall, promotion of cigarette sales in the third world has intensified. Adenocarcinoma has become the most common histological type recently. Research from various disciplines including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are on-going to improve the relative dismal prognosis of lung cancer.