In northern Ontario, Canada, there have been two “negotiated” documents that required consultation between First Nations and the federated government of the land: Treaty No. 9 signed in 1905-1906 (Dominion of Canada, with the concurrence of the Province of Ontario) and Ontario’s Far North Act (2010). Treaty No. 9 has defined the relationship between First Nations and Canada; while, the Far North Act will define the relationship with Ontario. This article evaluated whether the Far North Act marked a new beginning or the reinforcement of an unacceptable relationship, using primary and secondary data analyses. Analyses revealed that the passing of the Far North Act was not a new beginning, but the continuation of an unacceptable relationship.


The authors would like to thank the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada for their financial support.

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