Headquarters in Canada: An Analysis of Spatial Patterns
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Despite recent dispersal trends, headquarters activity remains disproportionately present in identifiable clusters within large North American metropolitan areas. Through nearest neighbor and spatial autocorrelation analyses, we statistically confirm the concentrating tendencies of head offices in Toronto, Montreal, Calgary and Vancouver. It is also established that head offices operating within these four metropolitan areas show collective distinctiveness in where controlled subsidiaries are located internationally and in what industrial activity is emphasized. Finally, we evaluate (via Spearman r and Kruskal-Wallis H tests) which socioeconomic census variables are linked with head office districts in Toronto and Calgary. It is suggested that head office districts will feature a relative absence of families, high-density housing, and short-distance commuting. While head office areas in Toronto, a headquarters center at the top of the Canadian hierarchy, resonate prosperity, Calgary features head office districts that are income diverging.