Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy

Program

Medical Biophysics

Supervisor

Drs. Glenn Bauman and Slav Yartsev

Abstract

The overall survival of patients with malignant gliomas remains dismal despite multimodality treatments. Computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a functional imaging tool for assessing tumour hemodynamics. The goals of this thesis are to 1) improve measurements of various CT perfusion parameters and 2) assess treatment outcomes in a rat glioma model and in patients with malignant gliomas. Chapter 2 addressed the effect of scan duration on the measurements of blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability-surface area product (PS). Measurement errors of these parameters increased with shorter scan duration. A minimum scan duration of 90 s is recommended. Chapter 3 evaluated the improvement in the measurements of these parameters by filtering the CT perfusion images with principal component analysis (PCA). From computer simulation, measurement errors of BF, BV, and PS were found to be reduced. Experiments showed that CT perfusion image contrast-to-noise ratio was improved. Chapter 4 investigated the efficacy of CT perfusion as an early imaging biomarker of response to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Using the C6 glioma model, we showed that responders to SRS (surviving > 15 days) had lower relative BV and PS on day 7 post-SRS when compared to controls and non-responders (P < 0.05). Relative BV and PS on day 7 post-SRS were predictive of survival with 92% accuracy. Chapter 5 examined the use of multiparametric imaging with CT perfusion and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to identify tumour sites that are likely to correlate with the eventual location of tumour progression. We developed a method to generate probability maps of tumour progression based on these imaging data. Chapter 6 investigated serial changes in tumour volumetric and CT perfusion parameters and their predictive ability in stratifying patients by overall survival. Pre-surgery BF in the non-enhancing lesion and BV in the contrast-enhancing lesion three months after radiotherapy had the highest combination of sensitivities and specificities of ≥ 80% in predicting 24 months overall survival. iv Optimization and standardization of CT perfusion scans were proposed. This thesis also provided corroborating evidence to support the use of CT perfusion as a biomarker of outcomes in patients with malignant gliomas.


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