In all societies and civilizations, schools are set up primarily to offer and promote socially valued knowledge, experiences, skills, and attitudes geared toward the sustenance and further enrichment of societal norms and goals. Since schools are charged with this weighty responsibility, harnessed and purposeful school development is essential for the achievement of cherished societal goals. Several intertwining factors such as culture, equity, diversity and multiculturalism, etc., contribute to meaningful school development in every society. In the order of hierarchical importance amongst these factors, culture ranks topmost in the list because it (culture) plays a deep and pervasive role in school learning, and by extension, in societal development and harmony. But what is culture? Hollins (1996, p. 18) succinctly defines culture as “the body of learned beliefs, traditions, and guides for behaviour that are shared among members of any human society”. In the realm of mathematics education, the learner’s culture has been identified as one of the factors that strongly influence and shape learning and performance. In pursuit of one of the set goals (cultural perspectives) of the Mathematics Research Team of the Canada-China Reciprocal Learning Project, this paper delves into the interactions of culture, the environment, and development/implementation of the mathematics curriculum in the East-West learning environments.

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